Fish Microbiome Modulation and Convenient Storage of Aquafeeds When Supplemented with Vitamin K1
Marcos Acosta, Eduardo Quiroz, Dariel Tovar-Ramírez, Vânia Palma Roberto, Jorge Dias, Paulo J. Gavaia, and Ignacio Fernández
Vitamin K (VK) is a fat-soluble vitamin necessary for fish metabolism and health. VK stability as dietary component during aquafeed storage and its potential effect on intestinal microbiome in fish have not yet been completely elucidated. The convenient storage conditions of aquafeeds when supplemented with phylloquinone (VK1), as well as its potential effects on the gut microbiota of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles, have been explored. Experimental feeds were formulated to contain 0, 250 and 1250 mg kg−1 of VK1 and were stored at different temperatures (4, −20 or −80 °C). VK stability was superior at −20 °C for short-term (7 days) storage, while storing at −80 °C was best suited for long-term storage (up to 3 months). A comparison of bacterial communities from Senegalese sole fed diets containing 0 or 1250 mg kg−1 of VK1 showed that VK1 supplementation decreased the abundance of the Vibrio, Pseudoalteromonas, and Rhodobacterace families. All these microorganisms were previously associated with poor health status in aquatic organisms. These results contribute not only to a greater understanding of the physiological effects of vitamin K, particularly through fish intestinal microbiome, but also establish practical guidelines in the industry for proper aquafeed storage when supplemented with VK1.