Algal lipids: structural diversity, analysis and applications
Diana Lopes, Susana S. Aveiro, Tiago Conde, Felisa Rey, Daniela Couto, Tânia Melo, Ana A. S. Moreira, M. Rosário Domingues
Functional Ingredients from Algae for Foods and Nutraceuticals (Second Edition)
Algae have gained industrial interest due to their chemical diversity and the bioactivities displayed by their compounds, especially those associated with lipids. Algal lipids, including fatty acids, polar lipids, and neutral lipids, play important functions in the metabolism and stress adaptation of algae. Furthermore, the lipid composition of algae presents a high plasticity under changes in biotic and abiotic factors, then shifts in growing conditions can promote the synthesis of interesting lipids. This chapter characterizes the structure, biosynthesis, and functions of algal lipids, as well as the main methodologies used for lipid extraction and analysis. The knowledge of the molecular structures of algal lipids is essential to understand the relationship between their bioactive properties and structural features, which are very interesting for applications in nutraceuticals and food industries.